Table of Content

    07 May 2022, Volume 8 Issue 5
    DB-in-DB: A New Blockchain Database Architecture
    2022, 8(5):  429. 
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    Due to data immutability, blockchain data can increase only. With everincreasing data and new system query requirements, existing database systems can no longer meet the needs of blockchain systems. This paper proposes a new database system design, DBinDB, where an external blockchain system contains at least one database system, and the database system contains an internal blockchain system. The internal blockchain system will store and process metadata. We have developed such a system, and the performance of this new DBinDB system has exceeded many popular database systems such as My SQL, MongoDB, and Redis in various aspects.
    Research on Key Issues of Blockchain Experimental Platform for Trusted Transactions
    2022, 8(5):  437. 
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    Many blockchain systems are available today. However, whether these platforms can meet the transactionality and regulation necessary for trusted transactions in the modern service industry is still a question. Because some systems are designed to evade regulation or adopt a centralized approach, such designs are difficult to use in modern trading systems. This paper first analyzes the challenges posed by trusted transactions to the application mode of blockchain systems. It then proposes that the core key issues in the design and implementation of trusted transaction blockchain platforms are to balance the multidimensional characteristics of the system’s “transaction+consensus+regulation+security smart contracts” from the perspective of system engineering.
    A Three-By-Three Grid Smart Contract for Parallel Gaming
    2022, 8(5):  443. 
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    Based on the model of the new smart contract platform LSO design, which breaks the mechanism that the traditional smart contract can only be bound to one ledger system (Blockchain), and the standardization and microservice of smart contract, we propose the threebythree grid model of parallel game of the new smart contract. In this new model, each transaction is divided into three stages: before transaction, during transaction and after transaction. In each stage of the process, the buyer, the seller and the supervisor provide their own smart contracts by querying the smart contract library or publishing their own smart contracts to form smart contract groups. There is a competition and cooperation relationship between these smart contract groups. On the one hand, they are cooperating and on the other hand, they are playing games with each other, so as to ensure the fairness and efficiency of the transaction.
    Design of Trusted Transaction Completeness Mode Based on Blockchain
    2022, 8(5):  460. 
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    Trusted transaction is the core and foundation of the modern service industry. In the past, the biggest problem in digital trading was that after the false transaction occurred, the transaction rollback, and then spread through DVP (delivery versus payment), resulting in losses to other parties more than both sides of the transaction. In addition, transactions in the modern service industry involve multiple parties and stages. A complete application layer transaction needs to be supported by multiple transaction consensus in the blockchain. The current research still focuses on the optimization of the underlying transaction consensus and lacks the discussion of vertical correspondence mode. Aiming at the two key problems of the trusted transaction, a design of trusted transaction completeness mode based on blockchain is proposed. The traceability and tamperproof characteristics of blockchain are used to ensure the security in the transaction process. Using authentication to control the attack of malicious nodes can better protect the privacy and security of users. Join the rollback mechanism to ensure the security of digital assets of multiparty to the transaction. Finally, the corresponding design of application layer completeness and blockchain transaction is used to illustrate the rationality of this model through ABS business (assetbacked securities).
    Design of a Smart Contract Specific Language for Financial Field
    2022, 8(5):  468. 
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    Smart contracts based on blockchain are highly professional, poorly readable and inefficient. In recent years, many domainspecific languages (DSL) based on smart contracts for financial subdivision fields have been proposed and used to solve the problem that it is difficult for professionals in different fields to write smart contracts directly. However, the DSL for financial asset securitization has not been developed yet. This paper first introduces the existing combination of smart contract and financial field, then puts forward the process of asset securitization contract, and designs a domainspecific language ABSDSL for writing the contract. Finally, an asset securitization contract is written in ABSDSL and verified its accuracy by transformed into a smart contract written in Solidity.
    Research on BPMN Smart Contract Paradigm for Credit Service
    2022, 8(5):  475. 
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    With the widespread use of blockchain in various areas, the problems of complex business requirements, highsecurity requirements, and difficulty in developing smart contracts are urgent to be solved. There is an imperative demand for an intermediate language that enables domain experts and lawyers to cooperate with developers to complete trusted smart contract development. This paper focuses on the credit service field, and we automatically extract text rules with syntax dependency tree, semantic analysis tree and other technologies. We also apply BPMN as an intermediate language to build a business rules model and produce a set of domain smart contract design paradigms. According to the code characteristics of smart contracts, the BPMN syntax subset is extracted to model the business process. The conversion rules from XML files based on the BPMN model to Java codes are given, which are expected to accomplish the work of efficient smart contract code generation. In the end, two smart contract instances are designed and analyzed.Key wordsblockchain; smart contract; BPMN modeling; credit service; semantic analysis
    Research on a New Generation Network Security Framework for Network Security Assurance of Major Event
    2022, 8(5):  492. 
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    Due to the open network environment,complex information system and widespread social concern, major event faces increasing network security risks. The traditional plugin network security protection is more and more difficult to adapt to the increasingly complex network security situation of major event. Based on the network security assurance work of 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games and 2022 Beijing Winter Paralympic Games, this paper systematically sorts out the main characteristics of network security assurance for major event, puts forward a new generation network security framework, and analyzes the structure, characteristics and models of the framework in detail. The “zero accident” in the network security assurance work of Beijing Winter Olympic Games and Beijing Winter Paralympic Games shows that the framework can effectively guide the network security assurance work for major event, and provides a successful model for network security assurance work for major event.
    Electronic Authentication in V2X Security Application
    2022, 8(5):  500. 
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    Vehicletoeverything(V2X) gets help from the new generation of information and communication technology, which lets vehicles exchange information with vehicles, roadside units, and other road users,thereby improving traffic efficiency, saving resources, reducing pollution and accident rates, and improving traffic management. The security of V2X is the key to its normal operation and development. The article analyzes the key security requirements of V2X, as well as the combination of electronic authentication technology, V2X public key infrastructure, and various V2X certificate applications. The three application scenarios, VehicletoVehicle(V2V), VehicletoInfrastructure(V2I), and InfrastructuretoVehicle(I2V), are used to discourse the secure implementation and application effects of electronic authentication in V2X.
    Research on Invulnerability of Standard IoT Based on Cascading Failures
    2022, 8(5):  506. 
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    The IEEE P21451 standard family defines the architecture of the next generation Internet of Things. In order to improve the invulnerability of IEEE P21451 standard IoT, a clustering standard IoT network model is proposed based on the characteristics of the IEEE P21451 standard IoT terminal nodes. Then a cascading failure model with adjustable load distribution range is established based on the load and function characteristics of the standard IoT, and the relationship between the key parameters of the model and the network invulnerability is discussed. The model divides the node load into sensing load and transferable load. Considering the influence of local and global information of the network comprehensively, the initial transferable load of the node is constructed by combining the node degree and the node invulnerability. The simulation results prove the stronger invulnerability of the proposed model towards cascading failures, which provides theoretical guidance and reference for improving the invulnerability of the IEEE P21451 standard IoT.Key wordsInternet of things; IEEE P21451; invulnerability; cascading failure; load
    Face Antispoofing Detection Algorithm Based on a Multimodal  and  Multiscale Fusion
    2022, 8(5):  513. 
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    This paper studies the problem that multimodal features are not fully utilized in facial liveness detection, and proposes a face antispoofing detection algorithm based on multimodal and multiscale fusions, which makes full use of the complementary characteristics of visible light, nearinfrared light and depth to filter the forged samples step by step. For the samples to be tested, firstly the playback attacks are filtered by nearinfrared face detection, and then plane attacks are filtered by deep discriminant network. Finally, the samples which were difficult to be classified are input into multimodal fusion module for comprehensive discrimination to obtain the final classification. In this paper, a high resolution multimodal data set of nearly 20000 groups is constructed, and lightweight discriminant networks with multiscale input are designed to further improve the adaptability of the algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has significantly higher detection accuracy than the single modal solution, and the total number of parameters and reasoning time are only 480000 and 8.07ms, which are far lower than other popular fusion methods.Key wordsface detection; demonstration attack; multimodal; weighted fusion; lightweight network