Journal of Information Security Reserach ›› 2024, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 377-.

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Theoretical and Legislative Research on State Ownership of Public Data

Huang Yichuan   

  1. (Law School, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031)
  • Online:2024-04-20 Published:2024-04-19



  1. (南昌大学法学院南昌330031)
  • 通讯作者: 黄一川 硕士研究生.主要研究方向为行政法学、数字法学.
  • 作者简介:黄一川 硕士研究生.主要研究方向为行政法学、数字法学.

Abstract: Public data, referring to various data collected or generated by the state and its representative organizations in the process of fulfilling public management duties and providing public services in accordance with the law, has clear ownership as the basis for its regulation. Analogous to natural resources, public data shares similarities in terms of relevance to public interests, high utilitarian value, and risks associated with improper use, suggesting the applicability of state ownership under the framework of the constitution. In practice, state ownership proves to be a relatively sound solution and can effectively promote the benign development of public data under multiple factors. Regarding legislation, there have been certain local practices, but the future direction should entail centralized legislation by the central government, focusing on refining the structural allocation of data property rights under the premise of state ownership. Additionally, it is feasible to establish a system that includes hierarchical classification and secure protection of public data, a foundational system for rights confirmation, and a utilization system emphasizing sharing, openness, and authorized operation. Research on state ownership of public data elucidates the legal framework for establishing ownership rights, offering a potential approach and proposing specific and feasible institutional ideas based on this foundation.

Key words: public data, data ownership and rights, state ownership, data confirmation, public data ownership

摘要: 公共数据是履行公共管理职责与提供公共服务的国家及代表国家的组织依法履职过程中所收集或伴随产生的各类数据的统称,公共数据权属明确是其规制的基础.类比自然资源,公共数据在公共利益相关度、可利用价值高、不当使用风险等方面具有相似性,可在我国宪法框架下考虑适用国家所有制.在实践层面,国家所有制也是相对妥善的方案,并在多重动因下可有效促进公共数据良性发展.在立法方面,地方已有一定实践,未来发展方向应为中央统一立法,应在国家所有制前提下细化数据产权结构性分置制度.此外,可构建公共数据分类分级与安全保护的制度前提、确权的基础制度、共享开放和授权运营的利用制度.对公共数据国家所有制的研究从法理上相对厘清了公共数据权属构建路径,提供了一条可能的进路,并以此为基础,提出具体可行的制度设想.

关键词: 公共数据, 数据权属, 国家所有制, 数据确权, 公共数据权属

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